Tuesday, 28 June 2011

Environmental effects

Environmental effects

CO2 emissions

Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fuel, producing less carbon dioxide per joule delivered than either coal or oil[20] and far fewer pollutants than other hydrocarbon fuels. However, in absolute terms, it does contribute substantially to global carbon emissions, and this contribution is projected to grow. According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (Working Group III Report, chapter 4), in 2004, natural gas produced about 5.3 billion tons a year of CO2 emissions, while coal and oil produced 10.6 and 10.2 billion tons respectively (figure 4.4). According to an updated version of the SRES B2 emissions scenario, however, by the year 2030, natural gas would be the source of 11 billion tons a year, with coal and oil now 8.4 and 17.2 billion respectively because demand is increasing 1.9% a year[35] (Total global emissions for 2004 were estimated at over 27,200 million tons) In addition, natural gas itself is a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide when released into the atmosphere, although natural gas is released in much smaller quantities. However, methane is oxidized in the atmosphere, and hence natural gas has a residence lifetime in the atmosphere for approximately 12 years, compared to CO2, which is already oxidized, and has an effect for 100 to 500 years. Natural gas is mainly composed of methane, which has a radiative forcing twenty times greater than carbon dioxide. Based on such composition, a ton of methane in the atmosphere traps in as much radiation as 20 tons of carbon dioxide, but remains in the atmosphere for a 8–40 times shorter time. Carbon dioxide still receives the lion's share of attention over greenhouse gases because it is released in much larger amounts. Still, it is inevitable when natural gas is used on a large scale that some of it will leak into the atmosphere. (Coal methane not captured by coal bed methane extraction techniques is simply lost into the atmosphere; however, most methane in the atmosphere is currently from animals and bacteria, not from human's leaks.). Current estimates by the EPA place global emissions of methane at 3 trillion cubic feet annually,[36] or 3.2% of global production.[37] Direct emissions of methane represented 14.3% of all global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2004.[38]

Other pollutants

Natural gas produces far lower amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides than any other hydrocarbon fuel.[39] Carbon dioxide produced is 117,000 ppm vs 208,000 for burning coal. Carbon monoxide produced is 40 ppm vs 208 for burning coal. Nitrogen oxides produced is 92 ppm vs 457 for burning coal. Sulfur dioxide is 1 ppm vs 2,591 for burning coal. Mercury is 0 vs .016 for burning coal.[40] Particulates are also a major contribution to global warming. Natural gas has 7ppm vs coal's 2,744ppm.[41]

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